Saturday, February 8, 2020
Nursing Informatics - Research Paper Example With regard to informatics, the article makes a brief overview of the some of the information technology devices that are used in health care settings. Among the information technology devices mentioned by the authors are computers, internet and network systems, patient monitoring systems, decision support systems, and data capture tools. However, the authors did not give elaborate details regarding the informatics, such as specific examples of information technology devices and how they are used. Regarding nursing practice, the article concentrates on how installing information technology in health care centers and educating health care providers how to use them can help in improving the outcomes of health care. A brief history of the application of informatics in nursing is also given. For instance, the article explains that integrating information technology with nursing practice was first regarded as a specialization in 1984 (Darvish et al., 2014). Significantly, the main theme i n the article is how the delivery of competent, evidence-based care for a nursing profession can be attained and healthcare facilities improved. For instance, the article explains how advanced systems such as computers, patient monitoring systems, and patient monitoring tools can help in reducing errors in making and maintaining patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ records. Despite this, the authors did not make elaborate explanations of the impact of informatics in enhancing competent, evidence-based nursing practice, it supported my position.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Doctor Patient Communication Essay This is the adopted mode of communication with the patient aiming at firstly, getting enough history or information towards diagnosing the patient presenting complaint and equally ensuring that the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to privacy, good health, and permission as the need arises, is not compromised during the process. Ã¢â¬Å"When communication and rapport is poor, patients are at risk of distressed and doubt doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s competenceÃ¢â¬ (Allen, 2000). Research reports that patients often wrongly base clinical skills on communication effectiveness. Patient with this bias mind eventually shows poor cooperation with treatments. This is more reason why it is an ethical issue. The present state of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological state is important. A depressed patient would prefer less talk than a patient who is worried to get fast cure and some times talk out of points if unguided by an experience doctor. Due to diverse understanding from multicultural views, it is necessary to understand the biological ethnicity of each patient through a Ã¢â¬ËbiodataÃ¢â¬â¢ aspect of the history. From the biodata, the religious denomination is noted. The occupation, family and social histories also reveal the mental state. DoctorÃ¢â¬â¢s adoption of line of thought would be of help. For example, a friendly way of approach gives the patients sense of worth and avoids any feelings of inferiority complex that may hinder patientÃ¢â¬â¢s opening up in detail. The doctor also needs not unnecessarily friendly, this could denote carefree attitude at times. 80% of the treatment receives is dependent of how elaborate is the history taken by the doctor. An understanding of introversion and extroversion communication type equally helps. It is necessary to carry the patient along, after the knowledge about the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s present state, preempt the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ worry and briefly explain why the next question is necessary.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Empress Dowager Tzu His Exposed in Sterling Seagrave's Dragon Lady ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s great ancient empire has been the source of stories, fables, and fascination throughout the world for generations. The Asian culture has a long history of powerful leaders and ruthless battles making it one of the longest standing powers that the world has ever known. Yet, what took centuries to create was destroyed during the reign of a single ruler, plunging the country into chaos and confusion. The one who often is believed to have generated this collapse is the Empress Dowager Tzu His, the last Empress of China. Until the end of her reign in the early 1900s, the life of the Empress was shrouded in mystery. Once people gained access to the court records, not long after the Boxer rebellion (1901), the Ã¢â¬Å"trueÃ¢â¬ nature of the women was brought to the world. Sir Edmund Blackhouse, a European writer, gained access to this information and painted a less than favorable portrait of the Dowager saying: Ã¢â¬Å"Tzu His was of a ruthless, single-minded tyrant, an iron-willed, oversexed Manchu concubine who usurped...
Monday, January 13, 2020
The article Media, Minorities, and Multiculturalism attempts to explain how and why advances in media misrepresentation of minorities continues to be Ã¢â¬Å"couched in compromiseÃ¢â¬ , and to distinguish between the concepts of media racism and racist media. This article also tries to draw attention to the complex factors involving media misrepresentation of minorities, and explores the developments in the creation of multicultural media by inclusion in mainstream media and institutional parallels that exist around alternative ethnic and aboriginal media.There are profound differences between racist media, and media racism. Racist media is media which openly discriminates against people of a certain race or ethnicity, thereby excluding them or denying them of certain privileges, while media racism is reflected in coverage that ignores minorities except in contexts of entertainment or crisis, and depicts minorities are problematic people, and also encoding words that constitute an e lite white discourse in perpetrating ideologies consistent with dominant sectors.The mediaThe mainstream media have been said to be particularly negligent in engaging with diversity in a constructive way, and failing to put the principles of inclusiveness into practice. Although the goal of the media might not necessarily be to diminish or demean minority men and women, the cumulative impact of miscasting has had the controlling effect of depicting minorities as remote or Ã¢â¬Å"removedÃ¢â¬ people.It has been noted that media that depend mostly on advertising for profit and revenue seem to be the least responsive in the area of change and improvement in minority misrepresentation, and news casting has remained a medium of the negative, even though there have been efforts to avert blatant racism. Men and women of the minority ethnicity are still constantly framed as troublesome people, whose demands and concerns are seen as unpatriotic, especially when they entail concessions or c osts.Over time, mainstream media has continued to misrepresent minority men and women at the news-casting level, advertising, TV programming and film making, even though there have been some changes and improvement in TV programming. For example, in countries like the United States and Canada, black and white viewers are having more and more favorite TV programs in common, which is probably because of the use of multi-ethnic casting in TV programs.Media miscasting tends to portray minorities as invisible, problematized, stereotyped, white washed and miniaturized people. Such an indictment is not entirely true presently, as there have been improvements in the quality of media and quantity of media minority representations.Also, advances in media representation of minorities are continuously Ã¢â¬Å"couched in compromiseÃ¢â¬ , as systematic biases and institutional barriers still exist. In the developing world, media coverage of minorities is miscast because the media is preoccupied with style over substance and with adversity over cooperation. Developing world minorities are mostly ignored or made to seem irrelevant by racist mainstream media, and this has the effect of framing minority peoples as volatile and mindlessly violent, due to the absence of a balanced coverage.Ethnic and aboriginal mediaThere have been positive advances in ethnic and aboriginal media, due a popular and a booming ethnic market, which is reforming the ethnic media landscape. Ethnic media continues to flourish with as many as 50 radio stations airing non-English language and non-French language programs. Canada is a world leader in aboriginal media, and has many aboriginal radio and television networks, which the people look upon as an emancipatory tool for social, cultural and educational construction.Racist media in CanadaOn the basis that a racist media is one in which racism is institutionalized, it can be said that Canada does not have a racist media. Canada does have human rights laws, federal regulatory bodies, and also industry guidelines that are designed to reject deliberate racism. What Canada can be said to have instead, is media racism because the media is not deliberately racist in their coverage despite the racism existing in the mainstream media on personal and institutional levels.Discussion questionsIs racist media different from media racism?How can the concept of racist media be measured?What constitutes racist media?Does Canada have racist media?Reference listMedia in societyMedia, Minorities, and Multiculturalism
Sunday, January 5, 2020
LITERATURE REVIEW COMPLICATED APPENDICITIS BACKGROUND ON COMPLICATED APPENDICITIS Appendicitis occurs due to several reasons like hyperplasia of the lymphoid, bacterial/viral infection but major cause being as a result of obstruction of appendicle lumen by a faecolith (1). if not managed in time or misdiagnosed it progresses to Complicated appendicitis in form of perforation, peritonitis, formation of phlegmon and abscess and even mortality(2)(3),especially in children the rate of complication has been reported to be very high . Perforation is defined as a hole in the appendix or a faecolith in the abdomen(4) while appendicular mass develops due to walled off perforation which causes a mass when it localizes(forsyth j) and furthers to adjacent viscera and greater omentum and forms a phlegmon (5).below are images of a perforation and a faecolith . A- Hole in the appendix B- Fecalith in abdomen Anatomy Vermiform of the appendix is approximately 5-10cm with its location at the right lower quadrant at the end of the cecum. Although being having its base at the cecum it can have abnormal positions like retroperitoneal, pelvic, extra peritoneal thus leading to different symptoms Pathophysiology Its reported that due to obstruction of the lumen of appendix, it results to intraluminal pressure concurrently bacteria in the appendix multiply causing white blood cells recruitment, pus formation and increased intraluminal pressure, if there is persistence of the obstruction itShow MoreRelatedClinical And Holistic Personal Health Factors Within An Emergency Nursing Framework3362 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pageswoman with acute abdominal pain requiring emergency assessment, and the subsequent diagnosis of acute appendicitis leading to surgical intervention. The aim of this paper is to explore the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s relevant presentation, clinical and holistic personal health factors within an emergency nursing framework. Two key areas of care will be identified to critique and examine in detail: acute appendicitis as an immediate concern, and long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and proton-pumpRead MoreClinical Problem Solving And The Division Of Infectious Disease 2961 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagestreated empirically with intravenous ceftriaxone. Gram negative bacilli are unlikely to be a contaminant; the main consideration is whether or not these gram negative bacilli come from a more ?routine? source (e.g., pyelonephritis, cholangitis, appendicitis) or were acquired during her overseas travel. Thus far, none of her physical exam findings or laboratory studies suggest a routine cause. She travelled in areas endemic for melioidosis which may present with sepsis and bacteremia without localizing
Saturday, December 28, 2019
BUNEA VALENTIN LEONARD GROUP 3A, ENGLISH-AMERICAN STUDIES ALLEN GINSBERG, Ã ¡Ã §HOWLÃ ¡Ã ¨ AND THE LITERATURE OF PROTEST nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997) was an important figure in the Beat Generation Movement that took place right before the revolutionary American 60Ã ¡Ã ¦s. Other major beat writers (also called Ã ¡Ã §beatnicksÃ ¡Ã ¨) were: Gregory Corso, Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs. The beat poetry was meant to be oral and very effective in readings. It developed out of poetry readings in underground clubs.(a beautiful image of these secret clubs can be found in the movie called Ã ¡Ã §Dead PoetÃ ¡Ã ¦s SocietyÃ ¡Ã ¨ with Robin Williams playing the main character). Some argued that it was the grandparent of rap music. The term Ã ¡Ã §BeatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When Lucien Carr was convicted for murder, Ginsberg was ordered to undergo psychiatric counseling. He was suspended from the university for a year. Before receiving The BachelorÃ ¡Ã ¦s Degree he worked as a welder in the Brooklyn Naval yards, as a dishwasher and night porter. Ginsberg was also accu sed of possessing stolen goods. He pleaded insanity and spent eight months at Columbia Psychiatric Institute. He was experimenting with drugs, hanging out with junkies and geniuses, brooding about his homosexuality, struggling to find his voice as a poet. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Later he campaigned for the liberation of American anti-drug laws. He wrote poems like Ã ¡Ã §MescalineÃ ¡Ã ¨, Ã ¡Ã §Lysergic AcidÃ ¡Ã ¨ and Ã ¡Ã §Laughing GasÃ ¡Ã ¨. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In 1955 he launched Ã ¡Ã §HowlÃ ¡Ã ¨. It is one of his early works. The poem was published by Lawrence FerlinghettyÃ ¡Ã ¦s City Light Press, with a foreword by Williams Carlos Williams: nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Ã ¡Ã §Hold back the edges of your gowns, we are going through hellÃ ¡Ã ¨ nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The police seized the entirely printing on the grounds of obscenity. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Ã ¡Ã §HowlÃ ¡Ã ¨ is a long free verse poem which exemplifies GinsbergÃ ¡Ã ¦s ars poetica of spontaneous composition: nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Ã ¡Ã §All you have to do is think of anything that comes into your head, then arrange in lines of two, threeShow MoreRelated Ginsbergs Howl: a Counterculture Manifesto Essay4130 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesGinsbergs Howl: a Counterculture Manifesto Allen Ginsberg dives into the wreck of himself and of the world around him to salvage himself and something worth saving of the world. In this process, he composes Howl to create a new way of observation for life through the expression of counterculture. Protesting against technocracy, sex and revealing sexuality, psychedelic drugs, visionary experience, breaking the conventions of arts and literature; all basic characteristics of counterculture areRead MoreEssay about Influential Poets of the Beat Generation1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Beat Generation of poets was created by a group of poets in the 1950s that were part of a new culture in literature. They chose to use their experiences in their writings which were widely criticized as well as loved by many readers. Two of the most influential Beat Poets of that Generation of writers were Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Ferlinghetti. The Beat Generation poetry was the first poets to write about non-conventional subjects as well as usin g different forms of expression in their worksRead MoreAnalysis of Allen Ginsbergs Howl2630 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Howl Allen Ginsburg Introduction Why is this poem so fascinating to scholars, students, and others in America, even today fifty-six years after it was published? Indeed it remains of interest because this poem was part of the literary movement that put the Beat Generation on the map, and it also demonstrated, Ã¢â¬ ¦in a seismic way, that social change could be driven by literature, Amiri Baraka and colleagues explain in The American Poetry Review. The poem broke form, and challenged cultural andRead MoreThe Beat Movement1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFollowing the conclusion of World War II, a collective of artists and authors began questioning the American Dream. In time, the ideas of this collective confronted mainstream society and ultimately led to a cultural shift, known as the Beat movement. Just as the postwar economic boom of the mid-1950s nourished American idealism, a new generation began to question the dominant materialism of American society. Although the Beat generation began on paper, through the artist ry of poets addressing theRead MoreAllen Ginsberg, Howl Cultural Imapact Essay2878 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesthats what the poet does.Ã¢â¬ Allen Ginsberg believed this wholly and based his means of poetry by what he said in this sentence. One cannot censor thoughts, just as one canÃ¢â¬â¢t censor expression. Ginsberg faced controversy for sexual content and profanities that he used in his poetry, but those were merely his private thoughts that he brought to the public. His poetry fueled a whole generational revolution in the 1950s. In times of cookie cutter uniformity Allen Ginsberg went against norm and wroteRead MoreEssay on Jack Kerouacs On the Road and Allen Ginsbergs Howl3843 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesJack Kerouacs On the Road and Allen Ginsbergs Howl Works Cited It was a 1951 TIME cover story, which dubbed the Beats a Ã¢â¬ËSilent Generation, Ã¢â¬â¢ that led to Allen GinsbergÃ¢â¬â¢s retort in his poem Ã¢â¬ËAmerica,Ã¢â¬â¢ in which he vocalises a frustration at this loss of self- importance. The fifties Beat Generation, notably through Jack KerouacÃ¢â¬â¢s On the Road and Allen GinsbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Howl#61482; as will here be discussed, fought to revitalise individuality and revolutionise their censored society which seemed toRead MoreThe Beat Generation1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswould be destroyed by the power of science. In an attempt to change the fate of society, the Beat Generation emerged; from jazz to jive talk to pot and peaceÃ¢â¬ ¦the Beats were, without a doubt, moving away from the norm of society, from the alleged American way. The term Ã¢â¬Å"BeatÃ¢â¬ was first introduced by author Jack Kerouac. The adjective beat, which was introduced to Kerouac and the rest of the group by Herbert Huncke, had an underlying meaning of being tired. However, Kerouac put a positive twist onRead MoreBob Dylan Essay1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDylan arises to the spotlight and sings songs speaking of protest and originality, expressing societal dissatisfaction felt by not only himself but by his entire generation. In the 1960s Dylan wrote many protest songs that people of his generation found themselves connecting to, leading way to a counterculture aside from popular music which also paved a way for introspective song writing. Born in Minnesota in 1941, Bob Dylan, then Robert Allen Zimmerman, befriended those less fortunate than him asRead MoreThe United States1445 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbe said for the Middle AgesÃ¢â¬â¢ Holy Roman Empire. In American culture throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, sodomy was the phrase used to describe all Ã¢â¬Å"deviantÃ¢â¬ sexual acts. A homosexual lifestyle was unthinkable, mainly due to the high rate of Christians who devoutly believed in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah. However people such as Walt Whitman, Charlotte Cushman, Emily Dickinson, Henry James, among others all achieved greatness in literature, the arts, and other fields, while also maintainingRead MoreCensorship Of The Beat Generation1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis period of suppression, there a group of young, intelligent and anti-conformist boys who were studying at Colombia University. Jack Kerouac, William Burroughs, and Allen Ginsberg are the Ã¢â¬ËfoundersÃ¢â¬â¢ of Beat Generation. The group beliefs focused on individuality, lack of censorship and salvation which shifted the lifestyle of Americans in terms of how they perceived the social norms around them. One of their notable achievement was rebelling against censorship. An excerpt taken from What was the Beat
Friday, December 20, 2019
Kemuel Nimi Noble Islam In France ( A problem for the European Union or not) My paper would critically look at the gradual integration and Islamitization of France in the last two decades. Will France remain French? How has the French government halted the rise of fundamental radical Muslims? Someone going to Marseille a sea shore island in France would be amazed by the share amount of multi-ethnicity and cultural diversity. The soccer team of this port city Olympic Marseille illustrates this assertion. Of the 23 players registered for this season, 12 of them are foreign mostly from African countries, 11 of the players are French. Out of the 11 players who are French 6 of them namely Steven Mandanda, Chris Gadi, Loic Remy, AlouÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These Muslims see the ghettoes as a way to gain from immigrating to France without assimilating into French society. Some level of violence has the advantage of ensuring separation from the outside world and can be used as a bargaining tool with the authorities to get more de facto autonomy meaning that Muslim neighbourhoods are ruled only by Muslims according to Islamic law and morals as well as to obtain more funding. It also serves as a social control tool against liberal-minded Muslim individuals, for conservative Muslim leaders can easier exert pressure on liberal minded Muslims for instance to compel females to don the veil within the context of the ghettos violence. Muslims in France have learnt how to assert themselves in their community. From building large Mosques in Central Paris to a using a shed in the central Toulouse market, French Muslims are getting bolder and bolder. Alaine Besancon in his book makes clear according to the Shari`a [Islamic sacred law], a non-Muslim country is not to be seen any more as Dar al-Harb [house of war] but rather as Dar al-`Ahd [house of covenant]; and the Platform is an expression of such a covenant.24 Fully aware of the legal or constitutional difficulties implied in such a statute of covenant, the platform refers to a de facto revision of the 1905 law of separation: These days Muslims build Mosques in France and ask for government aid because they put in their mosques library and schools. In principle, publicShow MoreRelatedFrance Bans the Muslim Burqa and Veil Essays1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe Middle East, and are placed within other countries such as France, they become a minority group, which attr acts attention because of their uncommon customs. Wearing the burqa and veil by Muslim women in France has become a controversial topic. The burqa and veil are recognized in France as a conflicting uniform against the French ways of Ã¢â¬Å"preserving the republic and its democratic and secular tradition.Ã¢â¬ (Graff). At first, France addressed the issue by intervening in the school systems in 2004Read MoreObey the Laws of God, Not the Laws of Man2572 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesObey the Laws of God, Not the Laws of Man On Monday, April 11th 2011, France became the first country to put into force a law that bans Muslim women wearing the Burqa in any public setting. Not only did this ban create a global debate, a domino effect on other countries to put forth the same law, but also creating tension among French Muslims and their citizens (Ulusoy). The Quran asks believing women to cover although Muslim women interpret covering their bodies in different ways. The Burqa coversRead MoreAl Islam : A Major Economic And Cultural Center1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis time world were divided into two parts: Dar Al-Islam which was the house of Islam and Dar Al-Harb the house of war.In order to be a part of Dar Al Islam a country/empire must be ruled by a muslim government.The outside world, which has not yet been subjugated, is called the House of War-the name that Dar Al Islam gave to the Europe because of christian being. -DAR AL ISLAM -Was a major economic and cultural center in the word.Dar al Islam provided a common language of traders on Indian Ocean(Arabic)Read MoreMuslims WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights to Practice Their Religion Essays1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere is a huge controversy about the hijab in some countries; France, Turkey and Tunisia are the most recognized countries in banning the hijab. France is not like other countries that allow the hijab; it rejects the whole idea of wearing headscarves. France bans Muslim women who wear the hijab from going to schools or even having jobs. In the Islamic countries like Saudi Arabia and Iran, women are forced to wear head scarves. Other countries like Turkey and Tunisia ban whoever female works in theRead MoreEnlightenment And The Enlightenment Movement1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat cultured such an immense need for reform in France between 1690 C.E. and 1789 C.E.? Geo. H. Lewis argues in his DeFOREST ORATION. CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION that the extremely hi gh and constricting taxes implemented in France, the conflicts between the nobility and the working class, and the uncooperativeness of the King created a sense of urgency for the general population of France (Lewis, pg. 51-52). Louis Gottschalk attributes this reform to the revolutionary ideas which were formulatedRead MoreEssay about Arab Nationalism778 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSyria were outside Arab domain. Since it was more important for the British to have the Arabs as fighting allies they supported Hussein. He proclaimed himself king of the Arabs in Mecca. He had the support of the British and the recognition of France of him being king. The revolt spread throughout the peninsula. Arab troops, mostly Bedouins were led by HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s son Faisal. They were aided by the British adventurer, T.E. Lawrence also known as Lawrence of Arabia. In October of 1918 the TurksRead MoreThe Folly Of Secularism By Jeffrey Stout1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesongoing debate and controversy in the secular state that is France. Secularism does not exist in a vacuum in France it builds upon Ã¢â¬Ëcomplicated emotional inheritance, specifically the negotiation between the religious and state secularism which appears to continually lead to an image of hostility being constructed for Islam, despite the promotion of universality that is allegedly key to the French Republic. This essay discusses the Hijab in France in regard to Jeffrey StoutÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Folly of SecularismÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreThe Rise Of Islamophobia Has Affected The Lives Of Many Muslims Living Of Western Countries1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRacialization of Islam In the past decade, especially the last two years, the rise of Islamophobia has affected the lives of many Muslims living in Western countries. Islamophobia by nature is racist, it makes general assumptions of a large group of people who share a common belief system. Making any generalization of the followers of Islam or of Islam itself, will oversimplify what is a diverse and complex global religious tradition. Yet western converts to Islam are often met with incomprehensionRead MoreA Satirical Article On Cultural Relativism Essay1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCultural relativism is the way in which our individual beliefs and opinions should be understood by others of the same or of different cultures. The Charlie Hebdo media murders in France January 2015 is a fine example of the way in which the views of the world are diverse depending on different cultural perspectives. Charlie Hebdo is a satirical weekly newspaper, it takes contentious world issues such as religion and politics and holds them up to the world with the intent to disgrace individualsRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrance is known to be home to the city of love, the Eiffel tower, the perfect holiday destination, paradoxically, the people are on the verge of war, living in neighbourhoods peppered with conflict, laced with cultural and religious intolerance and garnished with aggression. The social situation within France regarding the relationship of church and state has become increasingly strained, the accumulation of terrorist attacks and marginalisation of minority groups is only intensifying rising tensions